External Costs from Energy

Over the past 20 years, there has been much progress in the analysis of environmental damage costs, particularly through the "ExternE" (External costs of Energy) European Research Network. Since 1991, the ExternE project has involved more than 50 research teams in over 20 countries. The effects of energy conversion are physically, environmentally, and socially complex and difficult to estimate, and involve very large, sometimes ultimately unresolvable, uncertainties, unpredictabilites, and differences of opinion. Despite these difficulties, ExternE has become a well-recognised source for method and results of externalities estimation. 

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